Ceramic filter is a new, efficient and energy-saving solid-liquid separation equipment, which appeared in the 1980s and has been successfully applied to iron concentrate filtration. At present, the products have been widely used in iron concentrate, copper concentrate, lead concentrate, aluminium concentrate, nickel concentrate, gold concentrate, phosphate concentrate, fluorite ore and other major mining enterprises at home and abroad for filtration.
The difference between ceramic filter and other solid-liquid separation equipment is that the filter medium is ceramic filter plate. The ceramic filter plate has micro-pore which produces capillary effect. The capillary force in the micro-pore is greater than the force exerted by vacuum, so that the micro-pore is always filled with liquid, no matter what the situation is, it is permeable, impermeable and high vacuum. Its main characteristics are:
1. Vacuum is generally between - 0.095 - 0.098 MPa. The cake has low moisture content and high yield.
2. Vacuum loss is less and energy saving is remarkable.
3. The micropore of ceramic filter plate is generally about 0.5-2um, the filtrate is clear, no environmental pollution, and water resources are recycled.
4. The equipment has high automation, low labor intensity, simple maintenance and small workload.
Sewage collection system is a network system consisting of sewage pipes, ditches, culverts, equipment and ancillary structures for collecting, transporting and upgrading sewage. Generally speaking, in order to save operating costs, the flow of sewage in the collection system is mainly gravity flow, which requires that the diameter of the pipeline and the slope of the buried pipeline meet the requirements of gravity flow to the discharge point. Pumping stations are mainly used for sewage upgrading.
There are three main types of municipal sewage network: domestic sewage network, rainwater network and confluence network. Domestic sewage network mainly collects and transports domestic sewage in residential, commercial and industrial areas, while some groundwater infiltrates and some rainwater flows into it. Rainwater pipe network is mainly used for conveying runoff rainwater and other drainage. Confluent pipe network is the collection and transportation of domestic sewage and rainwater mixed water.
The catchment type of sewage pipe network has a great influence on the operation and management of sewage treatment plants. For example, for the confluent pipe network system, the large flow rate formed during and after the rainstorm and the large increase of suspended solids caused by its scouring will pose a serious challenge to the efficient and stable treatment of municipal wastewater treatment plants. At the same time, poor maintenance of domestic sewage pipe network may also exist a large number of infiltration or inflow, causing the same problem. In addition, when sewage is transported into a sewage treatment plant, it will produce acidification, corruption and odor, unless centralized treatment of odor is carried out in the process of transporting.
At present, little investment has been made in the construction of a combined sewage network system, but efforts have been gradually made to divert domestic sewage and rainwater. The cost of the renovation process is not very high, but only the need to disconnect the roof drain pipe from the municipal sewage pipe, or separate the sewage from the main buildings, such as direct drainage of rainwater into nearby streams or rivers.
Pretreatment mainly refers to the removal of HS, wood, cardboard, rags, plastics, coarse sand, grease, scum and other substances in sewage to protect the normal operation of follow-up treatment facilities.
Sewage treatment plants generally use multi-unit combination process for water treatment to protect the natural water environment. The composition of municipal wastewater is complex. The water content and solid content of typical municipal wastewater are 99.94% and 0.06%, respectively. Typical U.S. cities, including private housing, business districts and industrial enterprises, have a per capita domestic sewage output of 379-455 L/(person.d) (100-120 gal/(person.d)), excluding the infiltration and leakage of sewage collection networks. If these wastewater is not treated or effectively treated, the wastewater and its solid substances will seriously endanger public health and environmental quality.
Rainwater runoff and combined overflow also produce a large amount of sewage that affects public health and environmental quality. Rainwater and combined spills also produce a large amount of sewage that affects public health and environmental quality. Information on rainwater and confluence overflow management.
The most basic goal of wastewater treatment plant is to purify wastewater. The concentration of solid substances, organic substances, nutrients, pathogens and other pollutants in wastewater can be reduced by combined treatment process to achieve the discharge standard. Sewage treatment plants also help to protect sodium-receiving water, which absorbs pollutants before degrading. In addition, sewage treatment plants must protect the health and working environment of the employees of sewage treatment plants and adjacent enterprises.
When a sewage treatment plant has established an emission permit system, regulators need to consider the following issues in addition to meeting the minimum emission standards:
(1) Prevention of diseases;
(2) Prevention of public hazards;
(3) Protecting drinking water sources;
(4) Water conservation;
(5) Protection of navigation waters;
(6) Protecting water suitable for swimming and recreation;
(7) Protecting good habitats suitable for fish and other aquatic organisms;
(8) Maintaining the original ecological environment of the water body.
A huge problem that sewage treatment plants need to face is that the quantity of sewage water and the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of sewage are constantly changing. Some of these changes are temporary and are caused by fluctuations in water quantity and composition with seasons, months, weeks or tomorrow. Other changes are long-term, caused by regional population, social characteristics, economic development and industrial production technology. I. General requirements:
1. Operators must be trained with professional knowledge and be familiar with the structure, performance and use of the equipment.